Tajweed, sometimes rendered as tajwid, refers to the rules governing pronunciation during recitation of the Qur'an. The term is derived from the triliteral root '' meaning "to make well, make better, improve". Tajweed is a fard'' (religious duty) when reciting the Qur'an to the best of one's ability.Arabic alphabet and grammarThe Arabic alphabet has 29 basic letters.The Arabic word for "the" is al- (i.e. the letter alif followed by lām). The lām in al- is pronounced if the letter after it is "qamarīyah" ("lunar"), but if the letter after it is "shamsīyah" ("solar"), the lām after it becomes part of the following letter (is assimilated). "Solar" and "lunar" became descriptions for these instances as the words for "the moon" and "the sun" (al-qamar and ash-shams, respectively) are examples of this rule.Emission pointsThere are 17 emission points (makhārij al-ḥurūf) of the letters, located in various regions of the throat, tongue, lips, nose, and the mouth as a whole for the prolonged (mudd) letters.The manner of articulation (ṣifat al-ḥurūf) refers to the different attributes of the letters. Some of the characteristics have opposites, while some are individual. An example of a characteristic would be the fricative consonant sound called ṣafīr, which is an attribute of air escaping from a tube.